This paper surveys six attempts to estimate the annual level of killings by the police in the United States by describing the three federal reporting programs and three crowdsourced websites' efforts to estimate the volume of killings.

I find that the actual totals of killings by police in 2014 and 2015 are around 1 000---almost exactly double the officially reported numbers that have been circulating for decades. The creative analysis by Bureau of Justice Statistics consultants shows conclusively that the existing federal systems miss about half of police killings and confirms that crowdsourced estimates close to 1000 are correct.

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