Michelle Wilde Anderson, Dissolving Cities, 121 Yale L. J. 1364 (2012)
During the twentieth century, thousands of new cities took shape across America. Stucco subdivisions sprawled and law followed, enabling suburbs to adopt independent governments. That story is familiar. But meanwhile, something else was also happening. A smaller but sizable number of cities were dying, closing down their municipal governments and returning to dependence on counties. Some were ghost towns, emptied of population. In those places, jobs were lost and families struggled; crops died off and industries moved on. Other dead cities were humming with civic life: places with people but no longer with separate governments. In these cities, citizens from the political left and right, often in coalition, rose up to eliminate their local governments. As an end in itself, understanding these changes would be worthwhile. But this past has not passed. Unprecedented numbers of cities and citizens are currently considering disincorporation in response to economic crisis and population loss. The dissolution law to which they are turning, as it is written in state codes and as it is understood in theory, is immature and thin. Cities' experiences with dissolution are unknown, constraining our ability to judge the values it serves or undermines. If dissolution is to grow in importance as part of the legal machinery of urban decline, we must understand what it meant in the decades that came before, Dissolving Cities tells the story of municipal dissolution. It is an article of law, theory, and urban history- a reminder that urban growth and local government fragmentation, which have long dominated academic discourse on cities, may not be the upward ratchet we have assumed them to be. Cities can die, and when they do, they raise critical questions about decline, governance, taxes, race, and community.