The NFD and the Ten-Mile Kenyan Coastal strip, two regions different in many ways yet, at independence, sharing two relatively similar tests. The former, faced with an irredentist drive while the later having an uncertain legal position. To these two regions, the past half-century has been one of exclusion, dominance and expropriation. Environmentally unjust laws, policies and practices that have colonial origins have imposed disproportionate burdens on the communities inhabiting these two areas leaving them poor and neglected. These trends continue to subsist with the numerous development projects that have been initiated in the two areas. The intensification of development activities within these two areas continue to pose challenges as it has exacerbated environmental injustice in these two areas. It therefore becomes imperative that measures are adopted to address the environmental injustices that have metamorphosed since colonial times.
Smith Otieno, IanChris Muchangi, and Melissa Mungai,
Recurrent Chronicles of Environmental Injustice in the Northern Frontier Districts (NFDs) and the Kenyan Coast,
19 Berkeley J. Afr.-Am. L. & Pol'y